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This may be a stupid question… but I am curious to know how this works.

If a barrel is chambered for multiple length shells (ie 2 3/4'', 3'', 3 1/2''), then presumably the inner barrel diameter is it's actual size at the point of the largest shell size (ie 3 1/2'') thereby acting like a shell stop. Now if a smaller shell size is used (ie 2 3/4''), I would assume this would leave a gap between the end of the shell and the 'stop' (3/4'' in this example).

My question is… does this affect performance in any way or cause a potentially dangerous situation? Is there any possibility of the bullet hitting the 'stop' and causing damage to the barrel?

Has any manufacturer considering using some sort of a 'choke' on the receiver end of the barrel to match the barrel to the dimension of the shell? If you are shooting 3 1/2'' you can put in a receiver choke that has the stop at 3 1/2''. If you are shooting 2 3/4'', you can put in a receiver choke that has a stop at 2 3/4''. It just seems like a logical solution to me. Of course, this would not be beneficial to somebody who wants to shoot various size ammo without having to modify their gun. I have never done that.. so I don't know if this is common practice or not?
 

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A shotgun chamber does not have a square shoulder where the chamber ends. Instead, it has a tapered "forcing cone" that gradually changes from chamber diameter to bore diameter. The shot charge makes that small jump from the case mouth to the tapered forcing cone just fine.

For something to ponder along a similar line, consider the Cutts Compensator where the shot charge makes a jump from the bore through several inches of open space in the compensator, before entereing the choke. It looks like it should just rip everything off the end of the barrel when it hits that choke. But, it doesn't. It also works just fine.
 
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