I suggest you call Briley and talk to them about it. There are several ways the job can be handled, and they might have to inspect the gun to determine which way would be best for that gun.
One possiblility, depending on the gun, is actually shooting 12 gauge ammo in it. Some damascus guns, but not all, can be safely shot with low-pressure ammo. You would need to have the gun inspected by a gunsmith who is familiar with damascus (most of them are not) and you would have to be careful to use the right kind of ammo. Special low-pressure ammo is avialable, but probably not in your local gunshop.
It may also be possible to line just the chamber and forceing cone area to 16 gauge, leaving the rest of the bore alone. A 16 gauge shell will pattern just fine from a 12 gauge bore.
Another approach is to line the whole barrel. That would be more expensive, and I'm not sure whether Briley does it. Nigel Teague in England does it.
The cheapest thing to do would be to use one of the removable chamber reducers like the ChamberMate or Briley's version (I forget what they call it). But then you would probably have to go to 20 gauge, because I doubt there is a gauge reducer for 16 in 12 ga - not enough difference in size.
BTW, the term "sleeving" should be used (IMHO) in reference to lining the chamber or bore, but unfortunately that term has come into use to refer to cutting the barrels off completely right in front of the chambers, and using the breech area as a monoblock to fit new barrels. I hope you won't have to do that to your gun, because then you lose the originality of the gun and the beauty of the damascus - plus, it's expensive.
Indeed, "sleeving" often refers to replacing the barrels in front of the chambers. There is a process called "lining" that slightly bores out the existing barrels and inserts a tube the length of the barrel. This process preserves the beauty of the damascus barrels. Nigel Teague does this and I believe it costs about US $3000. (£1500) for a sxs. It is also cheaper than fitting an entirely new barrel.
Perhaps Teague can also change bore from 12 to 16 by means of this process
One of the guys at our club had a beautiful old Damacus gun "full length tubed" from a 12 gauge down to a 20 gauge and shoots skeet and hunts with it. I think Briley did it for him. I am not sure what it cost him, but I believe it was several hundred dollars. It was his grandpas old gun and the sentimental value was such that he felt it was worth it.
I have had two unique old Purdy SxS Damascus barreled double guns sleeved and reproofed by Teague. The work made the guns cost much more than they are worth on the market but they are family guns that I can now shoot with modern ammo. Priceless, to me.
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